An interaction between two persons in which one (The hypnotist) includes changes in behavior, feelings or cognition of the other (the subject) through suggestions. Hypnosis involves expectations on the part of subjects and their attempts to conform to social roles(e.g) the role of the hypnotized person).
How is hypnotism performed?
Standard techniques for inducing hypnosis involve suggestions by the hypnotists that the person being hypnotized feels relaxed , is getting sleepy and is able to keep his or her eyes open.
Speaking continuously in a calm voice, The hypnotist suggests to the subject that he or she is gradually sinking deeper and deeper into a relaxed state not sleep, but a state in which the person will be highly susceptible and open to suggestions from the hypnotist , suggestions concerning the person’s feelings, thoughts and behavior .
Another Technique involves having the subject concentrate on a small object, often one that sparkles and can be rotated by the hypnotist.
The result of such procedures , it seems is that some people (emphasize the word some) enter what appears to be an altered state of consciousness that is definitely not sleep —EEG rcordings from hypnotized persons resemble those of normal waking.
CAN EVERYONE BE HYPNOTIZED?
Large individual differences in hypnotizability exist.About 15 percent of adults are highly susceptible (as measured by their response to a graded series of suggestions by the hypnotist ), 10 percent are highly resistant , the rest are somewhere in between.
The people who are highly hypnotizable show several distinctive traits.They often have vivid fantasies, they are high in visual imagery, they are high in the trait of absorption, the tendency to become deeply involved in sensory and imaginative experiences, they often seek advice and direction from others and they expect to be influenced by hypnotic suggestions.
The greater the extent to which individuals possess these characteristics , the greater in general is their susceptibility to hypnosis.
Is HYPNOSIS REAL? Does IT PRODUCE ACTUAL CHANGES IN CONSCIOUSNESS?
SOCIAL -COGNITIVE OR ROLE PLAYING VIEW:
A view suggesting that effects produced by hypnosis are the result of hypnotized persons expectations about hypnosis and their social role as “hypnotized subject”.
The first step of these approaches suggests that there is nothing strange or mysterious about hypnosis.On the contrary, the effects it produces are simply a reflection of a special type of relationship between the hypnotists and the subject.
According to this perspective persons undergoing hypnosis have seen many movies and read stories about hypnosis , they have clear ideas about what it involves and what supposedly will happen to them when hypnotized .These views lead such persons play a special role that of hypnotic subject.
This role implies that they will be in hypnotist’s powers unable to resist the hypnotist’s suggestions.When they are exposed to hypnotic instructions to behave in certain ways or to experience specific feelings-they tend to obey, because this is what the social role they are enacting indicates should happen.
They often report experiencing the changes in perceptions and feelings that they expect to experience.