Dyslexia is a neurologically based genetic disorder and a Learning Disability which interferes with the attainment of language skills in reading, spelling, writing handwriting,and arithmetic. It exists despite  of adequate intelligence. Dyslexia is not the result of lack of motivation, sensory impairment inadequate instructional or environmental opportunities or other limiting conditions but may occur together with the conditions according to International Dyslexia Association.

Dyslexia is a reading and language-based learning disability. With this problem, a child may not understand letters, groups of letters, sentences, or paragraphs. For example, at the beginning of first grade, children may occasionally reverse and rotate the letters they read and write. This may be normal when they are first learning to read. By the middle of first grade (and with maturity) these problems should disappear. However, a young student with dyslexia may not overcome these problems. The difficulty can continue as the student grows. To him, a b may look like a d. She may write on when she really means no. Your child may reverse a 6 to make 9. Additionally, a child with dyslexia can sometimes see sentences, words, or letters hovering, moving (sometimes called “dancing”), or disappearing off of the page. These are not vision problems, rather they are problems with how the brain interprets the information it “sees.”

This article is all about DYSLEXIA , its causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Research work related to Dyslexia and some tips.


Psychology Facts

The word dyslexia is derived from the Greek word ‘dys’ meaning ‘poor’ and ‘lexis’ meaning language.It can effect anyone. Dyslexia is a disease but a different kind of mind that learns things in different way than other people.Many people with the condition are gifted and very productive. Dyslexia is not related to intelligence.


Dyslexia is an inherited condition .Researchers have determined that a gene in the short arm of chromosome number 6 is responsible for dyslexia.It results from neurobiological difference.Dyslexics have larger right hemisphere in the brain.Thus they are very good in artistic,athletic and mechanical areas.In this condition neurons are found in unusual places in the brain and are not neatly ordered.Studies have shown that dyslexics do not use the same part of their brain when reading as other people.There is no consistent part used for reading.They do not use the most efficient part while reading thus other part take over that function.

Dyslexia SYMPTOMS:
i. Preschool and Kinder garten warning signs: 

Delayed speech at the age of four.
Mixing up sounds in multi syllabic words(animal- aminal)

Inability to rhyme.
Many allergies and severe reaction to childhood illness.
Cant master tying shoe laces.
Confusion in directionality
Lack of dominant handedness switches from left-right.
Difficulty learning names of letters or sounds in alphabets, difficulty writing alphabets in order.


ii Reading and Spelling:                                                                                                
Slow , labored inaccurate reading of single words in isolation withno clues,

  • Does not read in smpooth phrases ignores punctuation, Becomes tired after reading for a short time,
  • When reading reverses (b-d) invert (m-w) or transposes (switch adjacent letters on- no ) ,
  • Substitutes similar looking words even if the meaning is changed( horse-house, while -white),
  • substitutes a word that means the same but doesn’t look similar(fast-speed , weep-cry),
  • Misreads, omits or adds small function words(a,an), Omits or changes suffixes ( late-lately need -needed).


iii- Spelling:
Consists of reversal inversion or transposition,  Continually misspells sight words(they, when),  misspells even when copying something,  Signs of uncertainty

iv- Quality of written work:

dyslexic child

Write extremely short sentences.
Take an unusually long time to write.
Poor punctuation , grammar, Symantec and suffixes.
Use space poorly on page (odd spacing , ignoring, margins).
Have illegible handwriting.
Miss many errors in written work( i.e. while copying they will copy wrong).

v. Directionality

Confuse geographic directions difficulty in reading maps,get lost when travelling.
Difficulty in learning direction words (over-under).
Left right confusion (b-q, carry forward in maths).

  • vi. Sequencing steps in a task:   Dyslexic child
    Tying shoe laces.
    writing capital curcive letters.
    Doing long divisions.
    Touch typing.


  • vii.  Rote memory of non-meaningful facts:  Multiplication tables
    Science facts (boiling point, speed of light )
    Historic facts ( dates, name , places)

viii. Time concept and time management:

Telling time using an analog clock
Knowing the month of a year in sequence
estimating the time a task requires they are late.
Remembering time and schedule
Using appointment calanders

ix.Spatial organization:
They are disorganised.They lose things, forget to bring necessary items.They can’t remember where they left something.

x. Maths difficulties:

Dyslexic child

   They are gifted in math but can’t.
Memorize addition and subtraction facts.
Memorize multiplication tables.
Perform long divisions.
Understand fractions.


Types of Dyslexia:

1. Surface Dyslexia:

surface dyslexia

If the brain has deleted the words from the visual word recognition systems the reading aloud will have to rely on letters to sound rules .Thus regular words will still be read correctly but irregular word wont.

2. Phonological Dyslexia:

phonological dyslexia
If brain damage has affected knowledge of letter to sound rules, this wont affect the ability to read aloud words but will make reading of non- words like vibration or ob inaccurate.

3. Pure Alexia:

pure dyslexia

Brain damage makes the letter identification system work very slowly and one letter at a time when it is sending      information to visual word recognition system and letter to sound rules. Normally this system is fast and deals          with all the letters at once.But some pure Alexis show convert reading o f some knowledge of the meaningful              words obtained well before they can read the word aloud.

4. Deep Dyslexia: People with deep dyslexia can’t use the left hemisphere to read at all.

deep dyslexia

Anyone who is suspect to have dyslexia should have comprehensive  valuation including hearing, vision and intelligence.The test should include all areas of learning and learning processes.



No single method works for every dyslexic. The primary focus of treatment is aimed at helping the specific learning problem of each person.This may include modifying teaching methods and educational environment.Dyslexics need a structured language program with direct instruction in letter sound system.Emphasis should be on association between simple phonetic unit with letter or letter groups rather than memorizing whole world.They should be taught to use all senses hearing, touching, writing and speaking.

treatment of Dyslexia

 Research on wheels

Samuel Orton, a neuropathologist and psychiatrist in the United States, was a pioneer in the field of dyslexia. During the 1920s, he acknowledged that some children whom instructors called “dull, subnormal or declining or retarded in schoolwork” were not stupid but merely had severe difficulty in learning to read and write (Orton, 1925). Orton realized that these children who could not read were intelligent; they could recognize and name objects, and they understood passages that were read to them. Unlike many of his colleagues and some specialists today, he comprehended that scores on intelligence exams do not fairly reflect intellectual capacity. He reported the case of one young man, M.P., age 16, who experienced a low score on the IQ test. This son could not visualize words and identify them in print. Orton tested his theory about the inadequacy of IQ tests by asking M.P. questions concerning the adjustment of bearings in a V-type engine. M.P. answered quickly and with obvious ability. When Orton provided M.P. lab tests that required mechanical skill, his performance was in the superior range. Yet M.P. got extreme difficulties with reading and writing. He could name the words of the alphabet but not say their sounds. His written composition was a jumble of words that made no sense, although in conversation his reactions were direct and meaningful. His spelling errors were typical of those of much younger children. One of the most common methods of teaching phonics today bears his name, the Orton-Gillingham method.

Another pioneer in the field was Samuel Kirk, who coined the term “learning disabil­ities” in 1963. He defined learning disabilities as “a retardation, disorder, or delayed development in one or more of the processes of speech, language, reading, writing, arithmetic or other school subject resulting from an emotional handicap caused by a possible cerebral dysfunction and/or emotional or behavioral disturbances. It is not the result of mental retardation, sensory deprivation, or ethnic and instructional factors.” This definition proclaimed the beginning of the attempt to generalize and codify the idea of learning disabilities. All the early pioneers in neuro-scientific learning disabilities identified that problems with certain areas of the brain were causing the reading and writing issues.

Case Study on Dyslexia

Dyslexic child

Sunny was a second grade student. It had been found by him difficult to complement alphabets with their noises or combine alphabets to make words. This led him to be always a little frustrated and disturbed in course and he previously difficulty completing his class work. When the course teacher educated Sunny’s parents, they replied that their son was intelligent and would pick these things as time passed gradually. However, when the results arrived, Sunny had received D and C levels in a variety of topics which got the parents worried. This right time, the instructor carefully insisted that the parents strategy a medical psychologist for an assessment of his learning problems plus they complied.

The psychologist educated the parents about Learning Disability (LD) and explained that we now have standardized assessments designed for assessing this problem. He explained the many assessments and the functions they measure. As the assessments were given and the full total results surfaced, the parents could actually obtain a much better knowledge of the issue Sunny faced.

This psychological assessment proved that Sunny has a mild degree of LD. The details of the kind of LD were evident on these tests also. A detailed evaluation was done by the psychologist and a psychiatrist to eliminate other medical, neurological and mental disorders associated with LD commonly. Luckily, in Sunny’s case there is no proof such associated condition.

Parents were advised to consider help from a particular educator. As time exceeded, by making use of the special educator, Sunny made considerable progress. He is almost at par along with his peers presently. He’s motivated to set up the excess work and his grades have improved.


Tips for Parents

  • Go high-tech for the children. Use computer resources, including apps, digital learning games, and websites with learning games.
  • Ask your child to tell you a new word she has learned every day. Build the Vocabulary.
  • Surround your child with reading. Ask your child to read out loud to her, modeling phrasing and intonation.
  • Playing games is fun and instructive so  you need to clap and instruct so that your child can hear how many syllables a word contains.
  • Give your child that special care as well as emotional support that will boost up their confidence level.